The retina is processing the optical image of our environment within the eye. Retinal ganglion cells (RGC) are the output cells which transport through their axons the results of the image processing from the retina to the brain. These cells are not able to regenerate after optic nerve injury, resulting in permanent visual loss. In a recent article Boia et al. provide an overview of the factors influencing RGC survival and axon growth and regeneration. They explain neuroprotective strategies and drug as well as stem cell based therapies in current clinical trials for the treatment of optic neuropathies. Their open access article provides a comprehensive list of references.